Greek euro exit would leave single currency on 'knife edge'

Janis A. Emmanouilidis

Public Service Europe


Link to original text

Below the commentary published by Public Service Europe:

The gravity of the moment signals that the time for muddling through and political manoeuvring is clearly over

The crisis has entered yet another phase, with Greece's membership of the eurozone being openly contested by commentators and even European Union leaders. Provoked by the outgoing Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou's unilateral decision to push for a referendum, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Nicolas Sarkozy – supported by other EU leaders – asked the Greek government to quickly provide a clear answer as to whether the country is ready to stick to its commitments in order to remain within the euro area on the basis of the agreement reached at the recent eurozone summit.

In addition, the sixth tranche of aid from partner countries and the International Monetary Fund, which was scheduled for November, was put on ice. Political developments in Greece are still fluid. The referendum is off the table and Papandreou's premiership is reaching an end as his party's biggest players have further distanced themselves following the national and international turmoil provoked by the referendum idea. To overcome the political impasse, it now seems that Greece is moving towards a provisional government of unity supported by the two main parties - Pasok and Nea Demokratia. A potential "government of national rescue" composed mainly of technocrats would have to fulfil three main tasks: avoiding an immediate "hard default" by first and foremost securing the transfer of the sixth tranche; implementing the decisions taken consensually by the euro-17 on October 26-27; and preparing the country for elections, probably in the early months of 2012. The main parties in the Greek parliament still have to agree on the new government's concrete mandate, timeframe, competences and composition.

The transitional government and every other future Greek government will face a tremendous task. With respect to its partners, Greece will in a very short period of time have to do everything to regain trust by providing evidence of the country's firm commitment and ability to fulfil its obligations. Efforts to attain a primary surplus and to reduce the country's debt to a sustainable level by 2020, in-depth reform of the public sector and the resurrection of the Greek economy will be a long and painful marathon – and it is by no means certain whether the country will in the end reach the finish line. But, the chances of success have at least increased over the last couple of days - as the danger of being forced to leave the eurozone has become a realistic possibility. Although the proposal to hold a referendum is off the table, the genie has left the bottle: a potential voluntary exit from the euro is no longer a taboo subject. The danger of a disorderly default has grown larger than ever and a growing number of politicians and commentators outside Greece argue that the country is a special case. The stability of the euro would – according to them – profit if Athens were to decide to exit the common currency.

In this situation, EU leaders and governments are sending different signals to Athens. On the one hand, they have further increased political and financial pressure on Greece by putting the disbursement of additional rescue funds on hold. Leading EU figures including the president of the Eurogroup Jean-Claude Juncker have declared that the eurozone must prepare itself for a potential Greek exit in order to avoid the negative effects of such a move for other EU countries and to boost the overall stability of the common currency. At the same time, eurozone leaders are reiterating their readiness to support Athens and expressing their desire to keep the country in the single currency – provided that it satisfies the agreed conditions. But will Greece be able to live up to these expectations? Nobody can really answer that question. However, one factor might help change the tide: the threat of being compelled to abandon the euro is fostering a more honest debate about the economic, social and political consequences of Greece returning to the drachma. Almost two years into the crisis, ordinary Greeks are suffering from the negative socio-economic effects of the crisis - high unemployment, cuts in wages and pensions as well as strikes. Despair, frustration and anger are widespread. But the Sword of Damocles of a hard default and the threat of a voluntary exit from the eurozone or, even, the EU are increasing public and political awareness of what needs to be done in order to prevent much worse – unprecedented mass impoverishment, fundamental political instability and conflict, and increasing social tensions.

The gravity of the moment signals that the time for muddling through and political manoeuvring is clearly over. The potential establishment of a unity government with a well-defined mandate would be an important signal and a decisive first step in the right direction. But the spirit of cooperation among major political parties will have to continue – especially, if the next elections do not provide a platform for one-party government, as current polls seem to indicate. The realisation that exiting the euro zone is no longer taboo does not only affect Greece. It is also a significant step for the entire single currency area, in both positive and negative terms. On the one hand, fear of being forced to leave the common currency increases the ability of governments and the EU institutions to exert influence on those countries that are not playing by the rules – although, the potential leverage is admittedly smaller with respect to some of the bigger and more economically powerful countries.

On the other hand, breaking the exit taboo undermines the overall credibility of the eurozone and risks even more negative market reactions – especially, if investors fear that other countries might eventually also end up like Greece. It would be naïve, irresponsible and even dangerous to underestimate the potential financial, economic and political costs of allowing Greece or any other country to step out into the abyss. It is more than ever in the self-interest of everyone in the union and, especially, in the eurozone for Greece to turn the wheel around and remain in the safe haven of the euro. But the level of uncertainty and risk has once again increased, putting the future of the euro on a knife edge.

Link to Public Service Website here.

Latest publications

Participatory democracy at the EU level: How to break the invisible ceiling?
Janis A. Emmanouilidis and Corina Stratulat, Observatory Report, EPC & EU Democracy Reform Observatory 03/2024

Europawahl 2024 – was für die EU und Deutschland auf dem Spiel steht
Janis A. Emmanouilidis and Johannes Greubel, Brussels 01/2024

Turning Fear Into Hope
Herman Van Rompuy | Fabian Zuleeg | Janis A. Emmanouilidis | Jacki Davis, EPC 11/2022

Overcoming the ambition-unity dilemma
Janis A. Emmanouilidis and Fabian Zuleeg, Brussels 10/2022

The Future is Now – What next after the Conference on the Future of Europe?
Janis A. Emmanouilidis, Taking Stock, Moving Forward: Reflections Following the Conference on the Future of Europe, Hanns Seidel Foundation & ELIAMEP, Athens 08/2022

Europe’s moment of truth: United by adversity?
Janis A. Emmanouilidis and Fabian Zuleeg, Brussels 07/2022

The von der Leyen European Commission at midterm: Same priorities, different reality
Corina Stratulat, Johannes Greubel, Perle Petit, Danielle Brady, Silvia Carta, Simon Dekeyrel, Francesco De Angelis, Janis A. Emmanouilidis, Melanie Fessler, Emily Fitzpatrick, Andrea García Rodríguez, Tommaso Grossi, Annika Hedberg, Elizabeth Kuiper, Marta Mucznik, Laura Rayner, Stefan Sipka, Brussels 06/2022

Adding Ambition to Europe's Unity
Herman Van Rompuy and Brigid Laffan et al., Project Syndicate, Brussels 06/2022

Under Construction: Citizen Participation in the European Union
Stefan Bloch, Paul Butcher, Maarten de Groot, Janis A. Emmanouilidis, Dominik Hierlemann, Corina Stratulat, Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung / Gütersloh 05/2022

After the Conference on the Future of Europe – Moving into a new era
Janis A. Emmanouilidis, Johannes Greubel, Georg E. Riekeles and Corina Stratulat, Brussels 05/2022